Full course description

First thoughts about bonding go back to the early fifties of the last century. This is quite understandable, since then, the only way to anchor a restoration into a tooth was by macro retention. being very demanding on the tooth hard tissue. Since then, adhesive technologies have continuously moved into dental practice,  rst by bonding to enamel, then by bonding to dentin with improved reliability. The next step was to bond to restorative materials and now there are even universal adhesives that can bond to any substrate the dentist is using. Applications go from  ssure sealing, direct restorations, veneers, indirect restorations, bonded attachments for dental prostheses, and  nally orthodontics is unthinkable without adhesion today. Furthermore, adhesive technology has strongly promoted minimally invasive dentistry.